А.К. Dobrotvorsky, Institute for Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 11 Frunze Str., Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
A. N. Alekseev, Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Universitetskaya emb., 1, 199034 St. Petersburg,
A.V. Tkachev, Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
The research described in this publication was supported in part by grants from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Award №98-04-49638) and the U.S. Civilian Research and Development Foundation for the Independent States of the FSU (Award № RNl-427).
We thank Dr. Olga V. Chankina (Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Siberian Divi-sion of the Russian Academy of Sciences) for the assistance in the experiments.
The use of pyrethroids for personal protection against ticks is based on the knockdown effect, e.g. locomotor activity disorders and paralysis develop-ing in a short period of time after contact with the toxicant. So the knockdown time (KT) is one of the critical characteristics of reliability of a pyrethroid as anti-tick clothing treatment agent. The present study is aimed to establish relationships between a dose and the KT for certain marketable pyrethroids (permethrin, cxcypermethrin, and flumethrin) which are used (or could be used) for protection against taiga ticks Ixodes persulcatus Schulze.
For all these pyrethroids the KT varied within a wide range at every dose used. We observed similar unimodal distributions of the KT in all experiments. The KT reduced with the increase of the dose, and this relationship was non-linear for all the com-pounds tested. Flumethrin at high doses caused knockdown developing in the shortest time, although its KT was longest at lower doses. In contrast, KT of permethrin and a-cypermethrin were less dependent to dosage.
Alekseev A.A., Chankina O.V., Dobrotvorsky A. K., Ruka-vishnikov A.V., Shashina N.I., Tkachev A.V. 1994. Susceptibility of the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus Schulze to pyrethroids // Experimental and Applied Acarology. Vol.18. №4. P.233-240.
Dremova V.P., Volkov Yu.P. 1987. [Pyrethrins and synthetic pyrethroids] // Meditsinskaya Parazitologiya i Parazitarnye Bolezni. №4. S.76—82. [in Russian]
Fryauff D.J., Shoury M.A., SchreckC.E. 1994. Stimula-tion of attachment in a camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae): The unintended result of sublethal exposure to permethrin impregnated fabric // Journal of Medical Entomology. Vol.31. №1. P.23-29.
Lane R.S. 1989. Treatment of clothing with a permethrin spray for personal protection against the Western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae)
// Experimental and Applied Acarology. Vol.6. №4. P.343-352.
Lane R.S., Anderson J. R. 1984. Efficacy of permethrin as a repellent and toxicant for personal protection against the Pacific Coast tick and the Pajaroello tick (Acari: Ixodidae and Argasidae) // Journal of Med-ical Entomology. Vol.21. №6. P.692-702.
[Methodical Instructions on Organization of Personal Protection of Citizenry against Ixodid Ticks, the Vectors of Infectious Agents]. Moscow, 1997. 16 p. [in Russian]
Mount G.A., Snoddy E.L. 1983. Pressurized sprays of permethrin and DEET on clothing for personal protection against the Lone star tick and the Amer-ican dog tick (Acari: Ixodidae) // Journal of Eco-nomic Entomology. Vol.76. №3. P.529-531.
Naumann K. 1990. Synthetic Pyrethroid Insecticides: Structures and Properties / Chemistry of Plant Protection. Vol.4. Berlin-Heidelberg, Springer Verlag. 241 p.
Plokhinskii N.A. 1970. [Biometrics] / Moscow. 367p. [in Russian]
Schreck C.E., Mount G.A., Carlson D.A. 1982. Pressu-rized sprays of permethrin on clothing for personal protection against the Lone star tick (Acari: Ixodi-dae) // Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol.75. №4. P. 1059-1061.
SchreckC.E., Mount G.A., Carlson D.A. 1982. Wear and wash persistence of permethrin used as clothing treatment for personal protection against the Lone star tick (Acari: Ixodidae) // Journal of Medical Entomology. Vol.19. №1. P. 143-146.
SchreckC.E., Snoddy E.L., MountG.A. 1980. Permethrin and repellents as clothing impregnants for protec - tion from the Lone star tick // Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol.73. №3. P.436-439