2015. 23 (1)


About authors:

Ayoub Z. N., Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Ahmed D. S., Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Abdulla M., General Directorate of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Mosa M. H., Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq


Varroa mite infestation was first detected in Iraq in the mid 1980s (Food and Agriculture Organization). High level of the infestation was found in all apiaries of Dohuk region and may act as a risk factor to the bee health. The mite V. destructor feeds on the haemolymph of the developing and adult bees. The structures that may be directly affected by Varroa mite infestation are the bee glands. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the effect of the parasitic mite V.destructor on the mandibular and hypopharyngeal glands of A. mellifera in the late summer 2013. Our results show significant differences in the size of hypopha-ryngeal gland acini in newly emerged workers infested with 1–3 mites compared to non-infested newly emerged workers, while only newly emerged workers infested with 3 mites showed significant differences in the size of mandibular glands as compared to non-infested newly emerged workers. Management strategies of the mid and late summer treatment are necessary to keep the mite population at low levels before and during the period when the winter bees emerge.


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